The different kinds of parquet laying patterns

Not all parquet flooring is the same. Depending on the taste here distinguish and decide the color, thickness of the layer of real wood, laying pattern and parquet structure. This article is about the latter - parquet structures. The variety of parquet structures allows for a diversified creative design of the room and gives a unique feeling of space.


Lacquered parquet

The surface of lacquered parquet is sealed in such a way that the pores are closed, preventing dirt from penetrating. For sealing, a film-forming varnish is used, which is applied in layers. The more layers that are painted on top of each other, the more durable the sealant is. It makes the floor particularly easy to maintain, because once applied, the varnish does not need to be regularly refinished. There are different chemical compositions of sealing lacquers. Which sealing lacquer should be preferred should be consulted with a specialist. You can choose between sealers with a matte, semi-matte and glossy appearance. For residential use, sealing waxes should be preferred which are manufactured solvent-free or contain solvents only in small quantities, as solvents can be harmful to your health. In addition, carefully follow the manufacturer's instructions and strictly adhere to the specifications regarding the drying time and walkability of the floor.


Oiled parquet

Oiling parquet floors is considered one of the most natural surface treatments. The oil penetrates into the pores of the parquet and does not cover it like a protective film. Floor oils are applied to the parquet or other wooden floors with a brush or soft cloth and left in with a polishing machine. After a short time of exposure, the excess oil must be removed with a cloth. It takes about 48 hours for the oil to cure until the floor is ready to be walked on (follow manufacturer's instructions). The advantage of oiled floors is that in case of minor wear and tear, they can be quickly and easily sanded down at the affected area and re-treated with oil. Regular after-treatment with oil is absolutely recommended.


Impregnations are colorless surface protection agents. The advantage of impregnation is that the wood does not change externally, thus retaining its wood character but becoming more resistant and durable. The thin impregnating agent penetrates deep into the pores of the wood and strengthens the wood surface. Impregnating agents are highly solvent-based and produce a matte, semi-matte or glossy finish. They are applied with a roller or brush. Please provide adequate ventilation during and after application of the impregnation so that vapors and gases can escape easily. The curing time depends on the temperature, room humidity and on the specifications of the respective manufacturer.

Wax systems

Wax systems are becoming more and more popular and are especially appealing to ecologically conscious customers, as they are mainly made of natural raw materials and do not take away the wood's ability to breathe. The advantage of wax treatment of parquet and wooden floors is also immediate walkability. Waxes and hard wax oils are applied to the wood with a brush, short pile roller or polisher. There are transparent decorative waxes that do not distort the color of your floor, but also opaque decorative waxes that can be used to achieve tinted and colored surfaces. Pigmented paints are not recommended for exotic woods. Thin-bodied clear waxes are particularly suitable for tropical hardwoods. After drying, the floor is polished with a polishing brush or polishing machine and can then be walked on. In addition, wood waxes serve as pore fillers and give a very pleasant feeling when stepping on them.

Renovation of parquet floors

A special advantage of parquet and wooden floors is that they can be renovated even after decades of use. Machine sanding and resealing or oiling will give your floor a new look with relatively less effort. After that, parquet or wood floors get a visual appearance that can compete with a new installation. This renewal can be repeated several times and can be done either by a professional or by a handy do-it-yourselfer.

Something else about underfloor heating

Underfloor heating systems, which are also called panel heating systems, are becoming increasingly popular in recent years and have become an integral part of many apartments and houses. If you are annoyed by unsightly radiators and irregular heat, underfloor heating is definitely recommended. In principle, a parquet floor can be well combined with underfloor heating. However, the installation should be carried out by a skilled craftsman. After the heating screed has set and the installed underfloor heating has been checked by a specialist for its function, the parquet floor can be laid. The parquet floor should be glued, so that the heating heat can be evenly distributed in the room. Floating installation can cause air pockets, which hinder the formation of heat in the room. In order to avoid possible damage to the parquet floor, we recommend that the temperature should not exceed 25°C. Gaps in the parquet can be limited by regulated air humidification and should not exceed 9 +- 2% for strip parquet and 8 +- 2% for finished parquet.

Sensitive woods react quickly to temperature changes with strong swelling or shrinkage. Woods with sensitive humidity change times are, for example, beech, kempas and maple. Oak, on the contrary, proves to be unproblematic. Also, parquet species whose wood has a thickness of 22 mm are most suitable for underfloor heating, because the narrower the solid parquet strips, the less the effect of gaps. In general, however, should not exceed a thickness of 15 mm. Anything above that causes delayed heat transfer, so your underfloor heating won't be able to provide ideal warmth.

Important points for the optimal parquet selection

Parquet construction

The quality of the parquet or wood flooring depends mainly on how the constructional structure of the parquet is designed. Here, a distinction is made in different construction layers. The so-called 3-layer parquet consists of a top layer, a middle layer and a counter layer. The top layer, which is also called the wear layer, is approximately 3 - 4 mm thick and consists of a high-quality type of wood, in contrast to the middle layer or backing, which usually consists of a cheaper type of wood. This is not to be understood that inferior wood species are used, but that these are usually fast-growing species that are available on the wood market at a lower price, e.g. spruce, fir, poplar. 3-layer prefabricated parquet, which has cross-glued layers, guarantees less shrinkage or swelling of the wooden elements and is extremely dimensionally stable. Standing or lying annual rings also play an important role in wood production. (see graphic). Standing annual rings increase the stability of the wood. 3-layer parquet and can be laid floating or glued over the entire surface.

2-layer prefinished parquet consists of a top layer and a milled middle layer. Due to its low installation height, 2-layer parquet is highly recommended for renovation works. This type of parquet is only suitable for full-surface gluing and gets its dimensional stability by bonding with the substrate. Of course, the thicker the wear layer, the more durable the floor and renovation can be done more often. In the trade, parquet is offered with a wear layer up to 6 mm thick, the E standard requires 2.5 mm, but even below this standard limit woods are sold. Particular attention should be paid to how high the moisture content of the parquet. The self-installer can check the wood moisture with measuring devices that can be obtained from specialized dealers. Or it can be checked by the installer and should be in the range of 8% to 11%. If the wood is too moist, it can cause gaps to form in the parquet or wood flooring, and if it is too dry, it can cause fractures. The m³ prices are given in the tongue dimension or deck dimension. If the width of the element is measured including the tongue, it is called the tongue dimension, the width of the element without the tongue is called the cover dimension. However, most manufacturers usually base their specifications on the cover dimension.

Processing quality

Another quality feature is the surface treatment of the parquet flooring. Here the applied amount (varnish or oil) is an important feature, but this is usually made by the producers according to standards. The pores of oiled parquet floors are filled with oil by the dealer to about 80%, so proper care after laying is extremely important. The type of surface treatment lacquered or oiled, depends on the use of the parquet floor. If parquet or planks are offered raw, that is, without surface treatment, it is necessary to ensure that the product does not have planing chips. It is also important that the top layer lamellas are glued together so that moisture cannot penetrate. Edge hydrophobic treatment should also be applied (products are available in specialized stores). This is important when wetness comes to the floor. To finish the floor should be a high quality skirting and on the doors appropriate transition profiles. They should be of high quality to give the floor an aesthetic framework.

Finally, the proper care and cleaning of parquet and wooden floors

Cleaning and maintenance of parquet floors

After the parquet and wooden floors have been professionally installed, the floors have created an exquisite look to the room and the appropriate surface treatment has added the finishing touches, it is natural to maintain this room success. The appropriate care products are used to protect the parquet floor. Unfortunately, it has to be noted again and again that if an unsuitable care product is used carelessly, some damage to the parquet floor occurs, which is difficult to repair. Care and cleaning products must be adapted to the parquet and wooden floor and used correctly. They should be suitable for sealed, oiled or waxed or impregnated floors. For this purpose, the specialized dealer has special products ready.

Unsuitable cleaning equipment, mops, etc. can damage the parquet floor. Cleaning agents have the task of hygienically removing dirt from sealed or oiled parquet and wooden floors. However, they must not be too acidic or alkaline, otherwise color changes may occur if used incorrectly (overdosing), varnish peeling or graying. Parquet, wood or cork floors must not be flooded because of the tendency to swell, but only lightly damp, mist-damp, cleaning. A distinction would have to be made between cleaning and maintenance products or a combination of the two. Many manufacturers already offer products that optimally combine both components. Sealed surfaces must not be cleaned with a core or neutral soap cleaner, as the lacquer layer of the sealant can leach out and become brittle. Wood discoloration may also occur.

Care should also be taken with care products containing silicone, which can make subsequent renovation impossible, as adhesion difficulties can occur, caused by the silicone. Oiled floors should be maintained with a moisturizing wood soap, which preserves the oiled protective layer. Maintenance oils are also recommended for further preservation and protection. In case of very heavy soiling, a basic cleaner should be used. However, because basic cleaners have a very intensive effect, too frequent use is not recommended. It is inevitable to adapt the basic cleaner to the respective surface treatment of the parquet and wooden floors.